Open Doors

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The first works in English, written in Old English, appeared in the early Middle Ages. Angola supplies most of Brazil's enslaved Africans for the next 250 years. 1575 - 1591 - - During this time, more than 50,000 enslaved Africans are exported to Brazil from Angola. 1577 - Francis Drake leaves England to sail around the world via the Cape Horn route. 1579 - The Portuguese establish a trading station in Bengal. 1580 - Ginger becomes a principal crop of Puerto Rico. It can be diffi cult for modern Westerners to comprehend the conditions that prevailed back then, for the Europeans who began sailing across the world.� In 1500, Europeans had been living on the cusp of disaster for the previous two centuries. �Earth began cooling off in the 1200s, and the High Middle Ages’ aggressive deforestation and agriculture on previously unsuitable lands, combined with the resultant population explosion, left Europe in a precarious state.� The first great famine that began in 1315 set the stage for what came afterward.� The “Little Ice Age” continued until about 1850, and war, famine, and disease were constant facts of life.� During those centuries, there was no European city that went an entire generation without suffering an outbreak of famine, war, or epidemic disease (or all three at once).� Not that Europe was a paradise before then, but Europe became a hell on Earth during those centuries.� Some motion pictures have attempted to recreate the ambience of those days, but no movie can do justice to the smells, feelings, and general atmosphere.� Heretics and witches burned across Europe.� In “civilized” London, a man did not walk down the street without a weapon in hand.� In European cities, criminals waited on every street, ready to pounce on the unwary.� One favored method was dropping bricks and masonry onto unsuspecting passersby and looting their bodies.� Food riots became common, beginning around 1500, as Europe’s population again began hitting the Malthusian limit.� Modern Westerners can scarcely imagine the filth and stench of those days.� People would go their entire lives without bathing, except for baptism.� England’s King James I, who commissioned his famous Bible, would not have been allowed in many Western homes.� He may have not washed his hands for his entire adult life, and was notable for his personal filthiness and boorish behavior.� The streets of Europe were open sewers, as were its rivers and lakes.� If Thomas Hobbes’s famous phrase, “nasty, brutish and short” ever applied to the lives of any people, it was to average Europeans during the “Little Ice Age.” The Iberian Pen insula, during its several century “Reconquest,” was the scene of continual warfare, disease, and famine.� The filthiness among Christians was enforced there on an even more stringent scale than the rest of Europe.� The Queen of Aragon once boasted that she had two baths in her life: when she was born and when she was married.� Bathing was a Moorish practice, and in 1500 bathing attracted the interest of the Spanish Inquisition, as it hunted down crypto-Moors and crypto-Jews, so filthiness was evidence of a Spaniard’s true Christian nature.� When Spaniards encountered Caribbean natives, they used the fact of the natives’ regular bathing as evidence of their “primitive” condition.� When the Spaniards eventually encountered the Aztecs, they remarked on their fanatical devotion to cleanliness, with daily baths and all manner of body and breath deodorant.� Aztecs found the stench of Spaniards so overpowering that they held flowers to their noses when speaking to them, and rulers would have Spaniards bathed in clouds of incense before speaking to them.� Tenochtitl�n had an army of street cleaners, and was cleaner than any European city would be until the 20th century.

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The Contemporary Spanish Theater: A Collection of Critical

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F0 peak height and the perception of sentence type in Castilian Spanish. It is part of the condition for the country�s �78bn bailout agreement from the IMF, ECB and European Commission. Portugal received the west African Coast and the Indian Ocean route to India, as well as part of the Pacific Ocean waterways, while Spain gained the Western Atlantic Ocean and the lands further to the west. «Unknowingly», Portugal received Brazil. Thank you and cheers.:coffee: Are they equally prominent in all Slavic languages?

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Don Quijote: Volume 1: Meditaciones Hispanoamericanas:

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From 1997 through 2000, almost all national and regional newspapers went online. Without being spoken how did the language cross generations? However, when one looks at 10th or 11th c. charters, one sees the word princeps used synonymously with baronis, optimus, etc to designate nobles and lords. Based on a unique quality or physical feature of the individual, descriptive surnames often developed in Spanish speaking countries from nicknames or pet names, often based on an individual's physical characteristics or personality.

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By Night in Chile

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In 1750, Britain was only slightly ahead of France in its industrial production. In June 2005, the Spanish parliament defied the Roman Catholic Church by legalizing gay marriage and granting homosexual couples the same adoption and inheritance rights as heterosexual couples. Dominance levels vary even within the same litter. Fifty-one of the 259 members of the Senate are chosen by the regional assemblies. The Microform Reading Room also has the DOCUMENTARY RELATIONS OF THE SOUTHWEST COLLECTION (on eighty-one microfiches) which includes indexes to primary documents on the southwestern part of what is now the United States from 1520 to 1820, with extensive lists of names of persons mentioned in the documents.

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The Companion to Hispanic Studies

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S. learning Portuguese typically Brazilian Portuguese, which is now considered the prestige standard. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲/欧洲); a similar Chinese-derived term Ōshū (欧州? ) is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the Japanese name of the European Union, Ōshū Rengō (欧州連合? ), despite the katakana Yōroppa (ヨーロッパ? ) being more commonly used. Calvinism - Protestant religion founded by John Calvin, centered upon "the sovereignty of God" (Protestant Reformation).

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Miguel Delibes

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The same is true in Galicia in circles whose language of choice might until recently have been Spanish. Ricardo Carvalho Bio: Carvalho is one of the best defenders for his team, making him one of the ten best Portuguese soccer players. The government failed to introduce any serious measure of land reform and this weakened its support in the countryside. They represent equal, near equal, and sometimes above equal representation in all levels of education.

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August, October

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Portugal has had one woman serve as president. Native tribes were usually at war with one another and some of them were only too willing to form alliances with the Spanish in order to defeat powerful enemies, such as the Aztecs or Incas. Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) was an Italian scholar, poet, and early humanist. Others imply that Czechs are heavy drinkers who choose to drink before they think in life or death situations ( Read more in French ). – Why is that in Estonia young mothers change their children’s nappy only once a day? – Because there is a note written on the packet: up to 4 kg.

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Camões and the First Edition of The Lusiads, 1572

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Francisco Franco (1892–1975), the leader of the right-wing insurgency that led to the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), was chief of state during 1939–47 and lifetime regent of the Spanish monarchy after 1947. The PSOE abandoned socialist policies in its battle against inflation and for the modernization of the industry through support of a capitalist market economy. Charles I was captured, and members of Parliament were torn. Languages change, often for the worse, sometimes for the better, which is why many people in the north the Subcontinent use Hindi-Urdu as lingua franca.

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Juliet of the Tropics: A Bilingual Edition of Alejandro

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The traditional loyalty between the government and the trade union federation could, in the event that this happens, come under additional strain. Elza usually works behind the scenes, although she occasionally makes herself heard in the background of some episodes! Francisco Franco landed in Spain, and for the next two and a half years, until 31 March 1939, Spain was ravaged by civil war. The first half was frustrating as Spain could not score with a good Albanian goalkeeper & a solid well placed Albania with up to 5 midfielders.

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Don Quixote (Hackett Classics)

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The Financial Services Business Council of the European Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong invites you to lunchtime panel discussion on Thursday 20 October 2016. Latibex, a Madrid-based stock exchange providing a market for the trading (in euros) of Latin American stocks, opened in late 1999. With all due respect :All those 'sh' and 'zh' consonants seem more indicative of Slavic. About ten years later another trading company, the West India Company, settled groups of colonists on Manhattan Island and at Fort Orange.

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